The Accounting period (Reporting period) is the time period for which a company or organization reports financial performance and financial position.
Normally firms define the accounting period with reference to the firm's fiscal year. Typically, four quarterly periods correspond to the firm's fiscal quarters, and an annual accounting period covers the entire fiscal year.
Accounting period explained in context.
Sections below explain the sequence of accounting activities across the accounting period as well as the financial reports that appear after each period.
- What is an accounting period?
- When does the firm publish financial reports for the accounting period?
- What is the sequence of activities across the accounting period?
- How does the accounting period compare to the fiscal year?
Business firms publish several accounting reports or financial statements are published shortly after the end of the accounting period. Their purpose is to summarize financial activity from the start to the end of the period. For companies in private industry, these include four reports:
- Firstly, the Income statement (or Profit and loss statement)
- Secondly, the Balance sheet(or Statement of financial position).
- Thirdly, the Statement of Changes in Financial Position (or Cash flow statement)
- Fourthly, the Statement of Retained earnings.
Note especially that government organizations call their "Income statement" a "Statement of operations." And, some non profit organizations call their "Income statement" a "Statement of activities."
Identifying the Accounting Period on Financial Statements
For all of these statements—except for the Balance sheet—firms identify the accounting period in view with a note immediately under the statement title, with a phrase such as:
. . . for the year ended 30 September 20XX
By contrast, the Balance sheet reports on the status of asset, liability, and equity accounts at one point in time—the end of the accounting period. Firms normally write this date just under the Balance sheet title with phrase such as:
. . . at 30 September 20XX
Exhibit 1 below shows the normal activities of the accounting cycle across one accounting period.
The accounting period is central to the application of the matching-concept in ACCRUAL accounting. This is the principle that firms report revenues in the period they a earn them, while reporting expenses in the period they incur them.
Continuous Accounting Through Period
Historically, journals were always bound notebooks in which a bookkeeper hand wrote entries shortly after a sale closing, after incurring an expense, and after any other event that impacts the firm's accounts. Ledger posting occurred at intervals, as accountants hand wrote the same entries into another bound notebook for Accounting cycle Step 3. Comprehensive error checking and trial balance were relegated to the final weeks of the period.
Today, of course, journals and ledgers usually exist as software and data in an electronic accounting system. Bookkeepers still make transaction entries, of course, but other individuals also contribute entries as well. Entries are made manually, through onscreen forms, but many entries are also made automatically (for instance, by a point of sales system).
Software also automates other stages of the accounting cycle, as well. Until the middle of the Twentieth century, when bookkeeping and accounting meant hand-written notes on paper, the posting of journal entries to ledger accounts was done infrequently during the accounting cycle. With electronic systems, however, journal entries can post to the ledger continuously. And, systems check for errors, continuously. Finding errors and making corrections need not wait for the end-of-cycle trial balance period.
Note that the practice of keeping accounting systems always up to date—ready for closing out at any time—is known as continuous accounting.
Public companies (companies that sell shares of stock to the public) must publish reports annually, for an accounting period that coincides with their fiscal year. In most countries, this is also the period (the year) for which tax liabilities are due.
Many companies also publish financial reports for quarterly accounting periods (three-month periods), for the benefit of shareholders, potential investors, and their own management.
Calendar Year vs. Fiscal Year and Accounting Period
Note that the accounting period fiscal year need not coincide with the calendar year. When a financial statement refers to "FY 2018," for instance, the reference simply refers to the fiscal year ending sometime in calendar 2018. The US government fiscal year ends 30 September 30, the UK government fiscal year ends 31 March, while the Australian government ends its fiscal year on 30 June. Among companies in private industry, Cisco Systems ends its fiscal year 31 July, Siemens ends the fiscal year on 30 September, and Hewlett-Packard's fiscal year ends 31 October.
Nevertheless, a majority of companies worldwide end their fiscal year accounting periods when the calendar year ends, on 31 December (for example, Ericsson, Virgin Media, and IBM).